| Abstract|| |
Guar gum is derived from the seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus. Guar has certain drawbacks such as uncontrolled rate of hydration, fall in viscosity on storage, susceptibility to microbial degradation, and turbidity in aqueous dispersion. Many of these drawbacks can be overcome by using guar derivatives. Guar derivatives upon contact with water hydrate to form hydrogels for controlled-release mechanism and show stimuli-responsive changes in their structural network, and hence, the drug release. The present investigation aims at screening guar derivative (hydroxyl propyl guar) during preformulation stage by spectral (FTIR spectroscopy), thermal (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), isothermal (HPLC technique), and rheological characterization for the development of stable in situ ophthalmic dosage using linezolid as the model drug.
Keywords: Behaviour index (K), consistency index (n), hydroxy propyl guar, ICH Guidelines, power law model
|How to cite this article:|
Nanjundaswamy N G, Dasankoppa FS. Compatibility testing and rheological characterization in development of novel in situ guar gum-based ophthalmic dosage form. Asian J Pharm 2011;5:191-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Nanjundaswamy N G, Dasankoppa FS. Compatibility testing and rheological characterization in development of novel in situ guar gum-based ophthalmic dosage form. Asian J Pharm [serial online] 2011 [cited 2013 May 19];5:191-7. Available from: http://www.asiapharmaceutics.info/text.asp?2011/5/4/191/97103
| Introduction|| |
Guar gum is known for its viscosity contribution in pharmaceutical formulations and also for ion-induced gelation effect.  It has certain drawbacks such as uncontrolled rate of hydration fall in viscosity upon storage, susceptibility to microbial degradation and turbidity in aqueous dispersion. These drawbacks are overcome by derivatization of guar to hydroxy alkyl derivatives.  One such derivative namely hydroxy propyl guar (HPG) is used in the present investigation for ion-induced gelation effect.  Linezolid is a synthetic antibacterial agent of a new class of antibiotics, the oxazolidinones which has clinical utility in vitro in the treatment of infections caused mainly by aerobic gram positive bacteria and certain gram negative bacteria and anaerobic bacteria.  Linezolid binds to a site on the bacterial 23S ribosomal RNA of the 50S subunit and prevents the formation of a functional 70S initiation complex, which is an essential component of the bacterial translation process.  Assessment of the potential compatibility between the active pharmaceutical ingredient and different excipients is an essential part of the preformulation study prior to the final formulation of a dosage form especially when novel excipients are intended to be used in the formulations. To predict the shelf life of the dosage form, one should know the stability aspects of the active ingredient in presence of other components of the formulation. , The study investigates the compatibility of antibiotic linezolid at accelerated conditions according to ICH guidelines (at 40°C (±2°C) /75% RH for 6 months)  with HPG, carbopol 940P, sodium alginate, benzalkonium chloride, and boric acid in the preformulation stage to develop a stable in situ guar gum derivative-based ophthalmic dosage form. Thermal analysis (DSC), FTIR (spectral), and HPLC technique (isothermal) are used in the study to detect any possible interaction and to establish stability and compatibility of the drug at accelerated stability testing conditions. 
In situ ophthalmic gels are expected to provide prolonged corneal contact time, reduced precorneal drug loss, and convenience of administration in comparison to eye drops, suspension, or ointments.  To fulfill the above criteria, viscoelastic property or rheology plays an important role in in situ gel formulation.  Therefore, the present study also aims at rheological characterization, stability aspects of the formulations, and the effect of sterilization(moist heat) and storage on the variations of viscosity of in situ gels by calculating consistency index (K) and flow behaviour index (n values) using power law model. ,
| Materials and Methods|| |
Linezolid (99.94% drug purity, Cipla Limited, Vikroli, Mumbai), hydroxypropyl guar (Encore polymers, Mumbai), sodium alginate, Carbopol 940P, benzalkonium chloride (Microlabs, Bangalore) were all obtained as gift samples. The solvents used for HPLC were procured form S.D. Fine chemicals and were of AR grade.
Standardization of HPLC method for analysis of linezolid
HPLC measurements were conducted using HPLC- SPD-10A series Shimadzu, Japan, the system being controlled by Chemstation A.09.01 software for chromatographic analysis. The column used was Luna column 5UC 18 (2)100A (250x4.6 size) having a surface area of 400±30 m 2 /g and particle size of 5.00±0.30 μm. The flow rate was 1 ml/min and UV detection was carried out at 254 nm. 
A quantity of Linezolid equivalent to 100 mg was weighed accurately into a 100 ml volumetric flask and dissolved in a small quantity of mobile phase (The mobile phase used was previously filtered through 0.45μ, Supor membrane, N 66 , nylon and degassed in ultrasonic bath). The volume was made up to the 100 ml mark with the mobile phase to get a concentration of 1000 μg/ml and was labeled as stock solution. The stock solution was diluted with mobile phase which is a mixture of ammonium acetate buffer and methanol in 60:40 ratios to get dilutions in concentration ranging between 20-140 μg/ml. The samples were subjected to inter-day evaluation to check the reproducibility of the results. The results were obtained in triplicate. Mean peak area versus concentration (μg/ml) was plotted and best fit was determined based on the results of linear regression, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation.
Drug polymer compatibility studies
Various blends of linezolid with HPG, carbopol 940P, sodium alginate, boric acid, benzalkonium chloride, were prepared in a ratio of 1:1, and stored in screw capped amber colored glass bottles; all the bottles were covered with black canvas and kept in stability chamber (Thermo lab scientific equipments Pvt. LTD., India, Model TH 90 S consisting of two chambers) set to 40°C (±2°C) /75% RH for six months as shown in [Table 1]. The various combinations (8s and 9s) were used to check the compatibility of linezolid with that of hydroxy propyl guar, carbopol 940P and sodium alginate, boric acid, benzalkonium chloride to find out any possible interactions in preformulation stage by spectral, thermal, and isothermal techniques. Sample no 8s and 9s were subjected to stability testing according to ICH guidelines.  The sample was withdrawn at time intervals of 1, 3, and 6 months, and the drug content was estimated by HPLC technique. 
|Table 1: Details of samples and blends subjected to accelerated stability testing|
Click here to view
FTIR studies were carried out using FTIR Spectrophotometer-Thermo, USA. Model -Nicolet IR 200 employing KBr disc method. Infrared Spectroscopic analysis was carried out individually and in combination as shown in the [Table 1]. The prepared discs were scanned in the wavelength range of 500 to 4000 cm -1 to obtain IR spectra's. Functional peaks of linezolid were compared with that of the mixture samples (8s and 9s) for possible interactions. ,
Differential scanning calorimetry studies
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were performed using Shimadzu Model DSC 60, DSC was carried out by purging with argon at 80 ml/min. Samples, 40 μl, were placed in hermetically sealed aluminum pans. Heat supplied was in range of 25-250°C/min. The endothermic peak(s) were recorded for the individual samples and in combination as shown in [Table 1]. The DSC thermograms obtained were checked for possible interactions. ,
Estimation of drug content in samples subjected to accelerated stability testing. ,
The sample no 8s and 9s were subjected to drug estimation by HPLC technique at a periodic interval of 1, 3, and 6 months. A quantity of the blend containing (100 mg) containing approximately 50 mg of the drug was accurately weighed into a volumetric flask. A small volume of acetonitrile:methanol: water (4:4:2) was added to extract linezolid from the mixture. The volume was made up to 250 ml. The above contents were filtered using 0.45-μ syringe filter. From the above solution, 5 ml was diluted to 10 ml with mobile phase and subjected to drug content analysis by HPLC technique.  The calculations were made by the aid of standard calibration equation.
Various blends of HPG, sodium alginate, and carbopol 940P dispersions were prepared in purified water (distilled water subjected to moist heat sterilization and stored at a temperature of 80°C and used within 24 hours after sterilization). The gum and the polymers were allowed to swell overnight. Agents for adjustment of osmolality and preservative were added. Then it was mixed properly and pH was adjusted to 7.4 with 0.1 N NaOH/ 0.1N HCL and volume were made up with purified water as shown in [Table 2].
In situ gelling ability
The gelling ability of the formulation was assessed by placing a drop of dispersion in a vial containing 2 ml of artificial tear fluid (ATF freshly prepared) maintained at a temperature of 37± 2°C in a thermostatic water bath. , The time taken for formation of the gel and dissolution of the gel was recorded.
Effect of sterilization on the viscosity
The formulations were subjected to wet heat sterilization by means of an autoclave with a sterilization cycle of 20 min at 121°C at 15 psig to assess the rigours of the sterilization on variations in viscosity.
The viscosity measurements were done using Brookfield viscometer DV-2 model. The in situ gel formulations were placed in the sampler tube (100 ml capacity). The samples were analyzed both at room temperature at 25°C (Before gelation) and at thermostated temperature of 37°C±0.5°C (After gelation) by circulating water at 37°C to the viscometer adaptor prior to each measurement. ,
The angular velocity of the spindle was 30 rpm and the viscosity of the formulations was measured. To evidence the variations in the consistency following sterilization and parameter % viscosity variation (difference in viscosity values before and after sterilization and after addition of simulated tear fluid in the ratio of 1:4), the viscosity values were recorded before and after sterilization at 30 rpm using spindle no TR11 with rest time of 3minutes.
The present report is based on the rheological characterization of the HPG based in situ ophthalmic gels. Viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids, which change with changing rate of shear, is characterized by more than one parameter and is represented by the power law model. ,
μa = K (1/n)nx (4πN)n-1
ln(μa) = (n-1)ln 4πN+ ln(K)-nln(n)
where, μa is the apparent viscosity (Poise),
N the spindle speed (RPS),
K is the consistency index (p s n )
n is the flow behavior index, dimensionless.
The values of ln(μa) and ln(4πN) were fitted to obtain a linear relationship; and from the slope and intercept of the best fit line, the flow behavior index "n" and consistency coefficient "K" were determined.
Effect of ageing on viscosity
The sterile formulations were stored at 40°C/75% RH for 1 month and 25°C/60% RH for 1 month and three months. At the end of each period, the formulations were subjected to viscosity measurements as previously described. The rheological data obtained was analyzed by fitting the data to the power law model as explained above to calculate the flow behavior index "n" and consistency coefficient "K". ,
| Results and Discussions|| |
The linearity of Linezolid was found to be in concentration of 20 to140 μg/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.9980. The average linear regression equation was represented by Y=3407x+3966, where X=concentration in μg/ml (ppm) and Y=Peak area. The retention time was found to be 10.88 minutes with a standard deviation of 0.172. The results are shown in [Figure 1], which is a typical chromatogram for 40 μg/ml. Hence, it can be concluded from the study that the above method is precise, accurate, and reproducible and can be used for drug estimation [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].
Physical mixtures samples 8s and 9s [Table 1] were characterized by, FTIR spectral analysis for any physical as well as chemical alteration of the pure drug characteristics. The principal functional group of linezolid are amide N-H stretch and amide C=O stretch. Literature value ranges 3400 to 3200 cm -1 (for amide N-H stretch) and 1690-1660 cm -1 (for amide C=O stretch). The values as shown in [Table 3] are concordant with the principal functional group wavelength. When exposed to accelerated storage conditions of 40°C/75% RH for 6 months, [Figure 3], [Figure 4] and [Figure 5], there was no significant shift in the absorption peaks of the functional groups of linezolid, present in the physical mixture.
|Table 3: Comparison of functional group peaks and endothermic peak(s) of linezolid with that of samples subjected to accelerated stability testing by FTIR spectroscopy and DSC analysis.|
Click here to view
Thermogram of linezolid revealed a sharp peak at 176.47°C and a small blunt peak at 146.33°C [Figure 6]. The samples 8s and 9s were kept for accelerated stability testing. After 6 months period, the samples were analyzed by DSC thermal analysis. The thermogram TH8s and TH9s revealed a sharp endothermic peak of linezolid at 175-176°C (according to literature-Melting point of linezolid is 173-181°C) [Figure 7] and [Figure 8]. The other peaks obtained in the thermogram were concordant with that of endothermic peaks of individual gum/polymers/excipients as shown in [Table 3].
The stressed sample 9s containing drug and all the excipients that are to be incorporated in the formulation were analyzed by HPLC technique. The HPLC chromatogram of sample 9s at before and after 1, 3, and 6 months revealed 99.14%, 91.46%, and 91.14% of the drug, respectively, even after being exposed to stress conditions [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11] and [Figure 12] and [Table 4].
|Figure 10: HPLC spectra of 9s after 1 month exposure to accelerated stability testing|
Click here to view
|Figure 11: HPLC spectra of 9s after 3 months exposure to accelerated stability testing|
Click here to view
|Figure 12: HPLC spectra of 9s after 6 months exposure to accelerated stability testing|
Click here to view
|Table 4: Drug content of sample 9s stored at 40°C/75% RH for 1, 3, and 6 months|
Click here to view
FTIR spectra are helpful to confirm the identity of the drug but due to presence of many ingredients in the sample mixture, it is difficult to predict the compatibility of the linezolid with other ingredients and excipients, whereas, DSC thermograms proved to be a valid tool for qualitative estimation where melting endotherms of the drug were well preserved as evident from the thermograms TH8s and TH9s. Thus, linezolid is compatible with all the ingredients intended to be used in the formulation and DSC being a sensitive, rapid, and convenient tool for screening various excipients in the preformulation stage. Reproducible HPLC data revealed the stability of the drug even after exposure at stressed temperature and humidity conditions. Therefore, to assess the compatibility of the drug in dosage designing, a combination of thermal, spectral, and isothermal techniques is a useful tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis during preformulation stage.
Formulations were designed by varying the composition of HPG, sodium alginate, and carbopol 940P. The formulations were tested for their gelling ability. All the formulations exhibited good gelling ability in simulated tear fluid after sterilization, which is important requirement for in situ gels. Results are shown in [Table 5]. The stability of the formulations was tested by subjecting them to sterilization (moist heat) and storage at 25°C for 1 and 3 months and 40°C for 1 month and effect on viscosity was assessed by calculating % viscosity variation, consistency index (K) and flow behaviour index (n) using power law model.
|Table 5: Viscosity values (poise units) before sterilization, gelling capacity and % viscosity deviation values after sterilization, after 1 month, 3 months of storage at 25°C and 1 month storage at 40°C .(evaluated at 30 RPM)|
Click here to view
H1-SA-CA, H2 and H2-CA exhibited decrease in viscosity (15 to 29%), while H2-SA, H2-SA-CA showed increase in the viscosity (3 to 6%) upon sterilization. H1-SA-CA, H2 and H2-CA did not retain the physical stability upon sterilization. H2-SA and H2-SA-CA formulations exhibited increase in viscosity (8%) on storage at 25°C for 3 months and slight decrease in viscosity at 40°C for 1 month (4 to 6%); as shown in [Table 5], these formulations retained the viscosity even at elevated temperature.
By application of power law model it was evident that H1-SA-CA, H2 and H2-CA exhibited increase in flow behavior index and decrease in consistency index after sterilization, storage at 25°C for 1 month and 3 months and at 40°C for 1 month. H2-SA and H2-SA-CA exhibited decrease in flow behavior index and increase in consistency index, which reveals increase in the viscosity of the formulation on storage even at elevated temperature. H1-SA-CA, H2 and H2-CA did not retain the viscosity on sterilization and storage. The values of flow behavior index (n) were found less than unity after sterilization and storage at 25°C for 1 and 3 month(s) and at 40°C for 1 month indicating shear-thinning (pseudoplasticity) behavior of the formulations [Figure 13] and [Figure 14]. Good physical stability following sterilization and storage, retaining the flow behavior index, and consistency index values, makes H2-SA and H2-SA-CA formulations as promising novel guar gum derivative-based in situ gels.
|Figure 13: Comparison of flow behavior index (n) values before gelation, after gelation, after sterilization, and storage at 25°C/1 and 3 months, 40°C/ 1 month.|
Click here to view
|Figure 14: Comparison of consistency index (K) values before gelation, after gelation, after sterilization, and storage at 25°C/1 and 3 months, 40°C/ 1 month.|
Click here to view
| Conclusions|| |
From the above studies, it can be concluded that Linezolid is compatible with HPG, a novel guar gum derivative and with all the ingredients intended to be used in the formulations. Qualitative assessment can be made by DSC analysis (thermal) and FTIR spectroscopy (spectral analysis). Quantitative analysis can be made by using HPLC technique (isothermal method). Therefore, a combination of thermal, spectral, and isothermal techniques is useful for qualitative and quantitative analysis during preformulation stage to assess the compatibility of the drug in dosage designing.
H2-SA, H2-SA-CA formulations exhibited good physical stability following steam sterilization and storage. The values of flow behavior index (n values) were found less than 1 after sterilization and storage at 25°C for 1 month and 3 months and at 40°C for 1 month indicating shear-thinning (pseudoplasticity) property of the formulations. Good physical stability following sterilization and storage by retaining flow behavior index (n values) and consistency index (K values), makes H2-SA and H2-SA-CA formulations a promising novel guar gum derivative-based in situ ophthalmic gels. The application of the power law model enables us to assess the change in rheological parameters efficiently in contrast to the conventional techniques.
| Acknowledgment|| |
The authors acknowledge the support of Dr. B. M. Patil, Principal KLES College of Pharmacy, Hubli, and Cipla Pharmaceuticals Mumbai for providing linezolid as gift sample and Encore Polymers, Mumbai for providing gift sample of HPG. The authors are thankful to the Government of Karnataka, Vision Group on Science and Technology, for providing financial assistant in the form of grant as Seed Money to Young Scientists for Research (SMYSR Award).
| References|| |
|1.||Davidson RL. Handbook of water soluble gums and resins. New York: McGraw Hill Company; 1980. p. 6-8. |
|2.||Swamy NG, Dharmarajan TS, Paranjothy KL. Derivatization of guar to hydroxy alkyl derivatives. Indian drugs 2006;43:756-9. |
|3.||Balasubramaniam J, Kant S, Pandit JK. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the Gelrite gellan gum-based ocular delivery system for indomethacin. Acta Pharm 2003;53:251-61. |
|4.||Harlikar JN, Amlani AM. High performance liquid chromatographic reverse phase method for determination of linezolid from pharmaceutical formulations (tablets and IV injections). Indian Drugs 2007;44:384-8. |
|5.||Gentry-Nielsen MJ, Olsen KM, Preheim LC. Pharmacodynamic activity and efficacy of linezolid in a rat model of pneumococcal pneumonia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46:1345-96. |
|6.||Marini A, Berbenni V, Pegoretti M, Cofrancesco P, Sinistri C, Villa M. Drug Excipient compatability studies by physicochemical techniques: the case of atenolol. J Therm Anal Calorim 2003;73:547-61. |
|7.||Dimple C, Vivek RS, Manjeet S. Thermal and Isothermal Methods in Development of Sustained Release Dosage Forms of Ketorolac Tromethamine. E-Journal of Chemistry 2008;5:316-22. |
|8.||Carlfors J, Edsman K, Petersson R, Jörnving K. Rheological evaluation of gelrite in situ gels for opthalmic use. Eur J Pharm Sci 1998;6:113-9. |
|9.||Bindal A, Narsimhan G, Hem SL, Kulshreshtra A. Effect of steam sterilization on the rheology of polymer solutions. Pharm Dev Tech 2003;8:219-28. |
|10.||US FDA Guidelines. ICH Guidelines for injectables and ophthalmic products: U.S. Department of health and human services, food and drug administration. Washington, D.C: US Government printing office; 1997. |
|11.||Agatonovic-Kustrin S, Markovic N, Ginic-Markovic N, Mangan M, Glass BD. Compatibility studies between mannitol and omeprazole sodium isomers. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2008;48:356-60. |
|12.||Fatimi A, Tassin JF, Turczyn R, Axelos MA, Weiss P. Gelation studies of cellulose-based biohydrogel; the influence of pH, temperature and sterilization. Acta Biomater 2009;5:3423-32. |
|13.||Manish D, Radha C, Verma S, Jaaffrey A. Rheological Properties of Tomato Concentrate. Int J Food Eng 2008;4;1-17. |
|14.||Manish Dak, Verma RC, Sharma GP. Flow characteristics of juice of Totapuri mangoes. Int J Food Eng 2006;76:557-61.14. |
Fatima Sanjeri Dasankoppa
Department of Pharmaceutics, KLES College of Pharmacy, Vidya Nagar, Hubli- 31
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13], [Figure 14]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]