Development and Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles and its Applications in Topical Drug Delivery Systems

Sonali Arjunrao Bhagat

Abstract


Background: Nanotechnology is finding new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals and various other fields. Increase of the surface area of a drug by reaching to the nano size offers more than one beneficial effects and applications. The same drug molecule in the nano size can work more efficiently, reach the target organ in the desired concentration but in lowered therapeutic dose, with less side effects and thus can give better treatment. This science is explored in wound healing process using silver nanoparticles (SNPs). Silver in its nano size shows better wound healing effect. Nano size sliver can be synthesized by various reduction methods in which silver nitrate is reduced to give silver atoms. Atomic silver enters into wound healing process more efficiently than silver sulfadiazine a well-known silver compound for wound healing. Various reducing agents from chemical origin have been successfully tried for synthesis of SNPs, but these tend to leave their traces behind, and could be toxic in wound healing process. Many phytochemicals have redox potential and are successfully used in creation of metal nanoparticles. In this project SNPs are developed using phytochemicals of turmeric, which is not reported as yet. The in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation of SNPs developed in this project show promising results. Aim: To develop Silver Nanoparticles using phytochemicals from turmeric and evaluate these using in-vitro and in-vivo methods. Method: In this project, a new method is explored for synthesis of SNPs using hydroalcoholic turmeric exctract and curcumin as reducing agents. Curcumin and other ingredients of turmeric called curcuminoids, owing to their structures (Keto enol moieties) can act as reducing agents. 1 mM AgNO3 was incubated with turmeric extract and curcumin separately for various time intervals. The temperature , time and proportion of reagents was optimized to gets maximum concentration of SNPs.SNP production using glucose as reducing agent was used as standard.Extract of turmeric proved better redox reagent than curcumin alone may be due to presence of other curcuminoids in the extract apart from curcumin. SNPs prepared using turmeric extract were evaluated by physical methods of characterizations such as scanning electron microscopy, Zeta potential, and particle size analysis. 0.02 % SNPs were loaded in 1% carbopol 934p gel and were evaluated for wound healing activity using burn wound model. Results: SNPs prepared using turmeric extract were evaluated for particle size analysis, PDI- Polydispersibility index, Zeta potential, SEM . All results indicated formation of SNPs ( average particle size 235nm) compared with standard glucose reduction method ( average particle size 895nm). Stability study showed no aggregation of SNPs. The in vivo study showed better wound healing activity than standard used namely silver sulphadiazine marketed cream. Conclusion: Synthesis of SNPs using turmeric extract and curcumin is a new, green method and not reported yet, as per literature survey done for this project. Successful synthesis and evaluation of SNPs was proved by the in vivo and in-vitro study.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22377/ajp.v10i1.524

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